It seems many people feels that authentication is pretty much a dead space. I thought I should air some of my ideas which I think are new and different.
Very Large Key
This idea was conceived while I was looking at the picture of Rai stones. A Very Large Key is a key that is too big to be stolen or copied. There is nothing keyloggers can do against passwords too long to be captured or takes too long to be sent inconspicuously.
While the idea is kinda crazy, some practical implementations are possible. For example, one can fill a CD or DVD full of random data and use it like a one-time pad to log into protected websites. Instead of typing in a password, pop in a CD or DVD and you are in.
As to key validation, server-side must somehow know what values to expect. Fractal mathematics or evolutionary key technique can be used, for example.
Note that access limitations is what is being leveraged here which means slow access speed can make smaller storage mechanisms effective enough. For example, a really slow USB Flash drive full of random data or a network storage service with access speed/event choke. Parts of the secret (random data) can be stored in pieces, of course.